The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956), Tuesday 12 August 1862, page 6
Evansford, 1868 - The following is a list of persons illegally occupying Crown Lands in the agricultural area of Evansford in 1868 :
John Hampson, store and garden Francis Gallagher, dwelling
John Sloss, fencing in allotment Andrew Jackson, weatherboard house
Michael Quinlan, slab hut James Sloss, licensed beer house
Henry Crofts, weatherboard house Thomas Furber, dwelling and garden
Thomas Laws, dwelling Methodist congregation, large wooden church
James Maudesley, weatherboard house James Whelpdale, weatherboard house
William Lindsay, dwelling and garden
The above is from Police Report, File L1510, Unit 502, VPRS 44, Public Record Office.
(ADHS Newsletter No. 160, JUNE, 1998)
Several companies are at work on the Mia Mia Reef, most of shafts are 100 feet deep ... I will send you a plan of Mia Mia Flat Diggings, connected with the Hard Hill ... Parts of the flat having been opened at different periods has caused it to possess a variety of names, such as Tick Nickle, the flat supports a settled population of over 300. Feb
Kangaroo Flat, Amherst - Still supporting population of 400.
Rocky Flat Lead - 27 frontage claims in full work (200 men employed). General opinion is lead is trending towards Gibraltar. Ground in that direction being taken up in 3 acre blocks, by parties of 18 men to each block.
Nuggetty Gully when first opened up was very rich, with numerous nuggets found weighing from 1 oz. to 30lbs. At present it supports a mining population of about 200 (principally puddling). Nuggetty Gully located at east end of Ballarat Hill.
Prince of Wales mine crushings at Cosstick’s battery (also known as Croydon battery). (Records of Geological Survey, Vol. III, part 2, 1912)
Prince of Wales Reef: First worked in 1860s - yields now unavailable. (Records of Geological Survey, Vol III, part 2, 1912)
Several companies are at work on the Mia Mia Reef, most of shafts are 100 feet deep ... I will send you a plan of Mia Mia Flat Diggings, connected with the Hard Hill ... Part of the flat having been opened at different periods has caused it to possess a variety of names, such as Tick Nickle, the flat supports a settled population of over 300.
Victoria Gully, Tunnel driven (‘so it is said’) in 1861. (Records of Geological Survey, Vol. IV, part 1, 1917)
Reefs being worked include New Years Reef, Carnabian Reef, Sydenham Reef, and Cockatoo Reef.
Two diggers - Herd and Tierney - in April, found gold in Reservoir Gully, near Amherst, during the excavation of the town reservoir. Liverpool Flat, south of Amherst, was also opened and there was a large rush in 1861 [Flett, 1979, p256].
I will forward a plan and sections of Nuggetty Gully, connected with the end of Ballarat Hill.
Construction of reservoir near the head of Amherst Flat, about 1-1/4 mile distant from Amherst township.
Extensive rush set in near the head of Amherst Flat, about 1-1/4miles distant from Amherst township, and which owes its existence to the reservoir now being constructed there ... excavation to bedrock across the flat from range to range ... The rush at present is extending down the flat towards the old lead which was lost some years ago, a little above the township of Amherst.
Kangaroo Flat, Amherst- Diggings principally being worked by puddling machines, and a few Chinese.
Reservoir Rush is declining, at one time there was 3,000 miners on the ground, but as the lead proved to be a very narrow one there was not sufficient room, now about 15000 on the lead.
Rocky Flat frontage claims yielding good dividends. Scandinavian Lead has joined Rocky Flat Lead - mining dull.
1864 to 1894:
The Dana Reef, which, in the early days yielded as high as 6oz. to the ton has lately been taken in hand by a company that is now busily engaged erecting machinery. The departmental records show that for a long time this line of reef supplied a large proportion of the gold credited to the Amherst division ... Within six months of the reef being opened in 1864, the mining surveyors report states that the Dana Reef so far had averaged 40z 5dwt to the ton and had cleared £4,000 in dividends. In March quarter of 1865, the Amherst division crushed 1,305 tons for 601 oz., and of this amount 401 oz. had to be credited to the Dana Reef as the produce of 188 tons. This was at 70 feet, and apparently the average yield fell to about 1 oz. per ton, until a depth of 240 feet was reached when the reef paid fair wages. The machinery was, however, removed [Special Report, 1894].
Kangaroo Flat, Amherst- mining population of 600.
Adelaide Lead - 350 miners working on the south end of lead.
1864 to 1894:
The Dana Reef, which, in the early days yielded as high as 6oz. to the ton has lately been taken in hand by a company that is now busily engaged erecting machinery. The departmental records show that for a long time this line of reef supplied a large proportion of the gold credited to the Amherst division ... Within six months of the reef being opened in 1864, the mining surveyors report states that the Dana Reef so far had averaged 40z 5dwt to the ton and had cleared £4,000 in dividends. In March quarter of 1865, the Amherst division crushed 1,305 tons for 601 oz., and of this amount 401 oz. had to be credited to the Dana Reef as the produce of 188 tons. This was at 70 feet, and apparently the average yield fell to about 1 oz. per ton, until a depth of 240 feet was reached when the reef paid fair wages. The machinery was, however, removed, and until operations were commenced by the new company the other day this very promising line of reef had been lying unworked as regards the lower formations. [Special Report, 1894)
From present appearance the lead promises to be one of the most important ever opened up in the Maryborough district. A small township is rapidly being formed at the northern base of the Mount ... Mines working on north side of the Mount include All Nations Co., Victoria Co. (adjoining All Nations), Perseverance Co. (adopting same system as Great Tunnel Co. = inclined tunnel on the side of the Mount). Southern Cross Co., Pioneer Co., Oriental Co., Darling Co. are all sinking. Black Ball Co. making good wages. Talbot Gold has bottomed their shaft. Perseverance Co. is building new brick chimney and replacing boiler. Prospectors south of the mount unable to reach bedrock with windlass on account of water. Tunnel companies on the east side of the Mount retarded by foul air - Princess Alexandra, Prince of Wales, and Exploring Gold Mining companies are in, respectively 1,200, 1,250 and 1,300 feet.
Rocky Flat - 400 men. Mining matters improved, particularly near McCullough’s Paddock - Prince Alfred Co., British Standard Co., Lancashire Lass Co., Irish Lass Co., and Rocky Flat Paddock Gold Mining Co.
Progress good on Rocky Flat lead. Band of Hope and Rising Sun companies completed erection of machinery. Paddock Co., good weekly dividends. Britannia, Prince Alfred and Irish Lass being rewarded for labour. Royal Standard Co.’s engine started.
Those claims that have bottomed and opened out are getting very satisfactory returns especially All Nations, Talbot, Perseverance, Oriental, Black Ball, Darling, Victoria and Prince of Wales. Pioneer Co. struck payable gold. Undaunted Co., sinking. Southern Cross Co., sinking. Search and Find It, purchased 25hp engine. Homeward Bound and Lone Tree Isola about to commence. Golden Ball, Koh-i-noor, and Grand Junction are sinking.
A company has been formed for sluicing auriferous ground near the eastern base of Mount Glasgow ... their intention is to convey water from the Merin Merrick swamp, about one mile distant.
Ground for about 100 miners occupied about 1-1/2miles south of Mount Greenock, near the Antrim Arms, or junction of Clunes and Ballarat Roads. A tunnelling company, in driving westwards into the plains, obtained some good prospects. It is probable this may be the Mount Greenock lead, or a tributary of it.
Mt Glasgow and Swamp Companies: A Company has been formed for sluicing near the eastern base of Mt. Glasgow. Water to be conveyed from Merin Merick Swamp, about 1 mile distant.
Messrs Leyland and Stewart's hydraulic works at Kangaroo. The hoses, with pressure of 33 feet, are equal to washing 1,000 tons of dirt in 20 hours with two shifts of men (six in each gang). The tailings are lifted 20 feet by a series of dredge buckets, which are attached to an overshot water-wheel of 14 feet diameter.
Considerable falling off has taken place in the Mount Greenock Plain leasing companies.
Owing to the continued drought, the miners in this division are in very straitened circumstances, which has caused a further decrease in the numbers employed, and those which have no means of removing have been under the necessity of “fossicking” about in the various small gullies in the hope of finding a little gold. The water races have been dried up during the whole quarter, so that the miner has had nothing to fall back upon when the natural beds of the streams failed to give a supply.
Continued drought - decrease in numbers, those who cannot move now reduced to fossicking, water races have dried up.
The alluvial mining about Mount Greenock continues in a depressed state, owing to the want of sufficient capital to work the main lead, which is so heavily charged with water. The Hoffnung Co., at Mt. Greenock South, has had a 12hp engine, with 6-inch pipes and a 70-ft lift, employed for some months past exclusively in pumping, but have had to suspend operations to place in 10-inch pipes, which is thought will clear the lead so as to enable the miners to proceed.
The Victoria Co., at Whitehorse Reef, near Amherst, has erected a steam engine, of 30hp, outlay of £3000. 10-head of stamps.
Decrease of 280 alluvial miners, left for harvest work and others are employed in fencing in the land which has been granted under the 42nd section of the Land Act of
The deep alluvial lead from Mount Greenock to Fox’s Point, near Majorca, is still undeveloped from excess of water; the want of capital has caused a failure in every case where the miners have touched it. This may be fairly termed the “lead of the division”.
Mining generally at very low ebb, from want of water in the shallow diggings and dearth of capital in the deep leads. Several public meetings held ... the Greenock deep lead will probably remain unworked for an indefinite period, unless outside capital is brought in.
Mount Greenock Lead will probably remain unworked indefinitely until outside capital is brought in.
Increase of 73 alluvial miners but some men are partly employed cultivating the land they have obtained under 42nd section of the Land Act of 1865. Mining operations in Division is in very depressed state, from want of capital to develop the quartz lodes and deep alluvial leads.
Hoffnung Co. - broken down a third time.
Sadowa Co., heads the list of alluvial mines ... has given an impetus to deep lead mining.
A new rush has taken place at Emu, situate about four miles from Talbot, 30 men employed.
Alluvial mining still in depressed state for want of capital. An effort being made by the Union Co. to raise sufficient funds to develop the Mount Greenock deep lead, need about £4000.
Sadowa Co. - 1166 oz.
Emu Diggings: A Ballarat company, combined with working men in the locality, have taken up 3000 feet of Bluchers Reef under bye-laws, and are about to place powerful machinery on the claim. Plan of Waterloo Claim, Blucher’s Reef, Emu Diggings, Talbot Prospecting claim, given name of Nuggetty Reef, found to be a spur of Blucher’s Reef
Sadowa Co. - 1705 oz. September 1868:Sadowa Co. - an increase of 532 oz. Nil Desperandum Co., Scandinavian Lead, has spent 9 months erecting steam machinery.Amherst Mining Division
The Union Co., Mount Greenock South, now erecting plant ... will assist the Hoffnung with water. Private ground on the south side of Hoffnung has been let to a mining company - Nicholls Freehold Co.
Rip Van Winkle Co. - first attempt to find Mt Greenock Lead. Party sank shaft to 230 feet, then mining depression set in and shaft abandoned. (MSR, 12/88).
Prospecting claim gave 20 oz. a ton of quartz in the last crushing of 6 tons, from Prince Alfred Reef, near German Gully.
An unusual quantity of ground has been applied for, under leases and otherwise, in this division during the last quarter, viz. 2,544 acres have been surveyed under mining leases, 158 acres in extended claims under the bye-laws, besides 258 acres on private land - making 2,960 acres. The recent large rushes don’t appear to have taken many miners away from the locality as most miners have settled homes.
Scandinavian Lead - Brunswick Gold Mining Co. - 27hp steam engine.
Scandinavian Lead - Sadowa Co., 2105 oz. from No. 3 shaft. No. 4 shaft down 120 feet and has two substantial steam engines in course of erection.
Emu Diggings: Waterloo Co., Blucher’s Reef, have a crushing plant of 40hp in the course of erection. The shaft is 200 feet deep.
The large gold mining companies near the swamps are making good progress, and have first class machinery erected, or in the course of erection. The Great Wheal and North Clunes Extended companies expect to be alluvial mines, the former being 85 feet, the latter 100 feet deep. The Great Northern and Talbot and Clunes will be quartz mines. Quartz mining greatly neglected, although many payable reefs known to exist, the total crushing plant of the division consists of two machines, one of eight stamps driven by a 10hp, the other 12-head driven by 12hp.
Mt Glasgow and Swamp Companies: The large gold mining companies near the swamps are making good progress, and have first class machinery erected, or in the course of erection. The Great Wheal and North Clunes Extended companies expect to be alluvial mines, the former being 85 feet, the latter 100 feet deep. The Great Northern and Talbot and Clunes will be quartz mines.
Mt Glasgow and Swamp Companies: the large companies near the swamps (on the prolongation of the Clunes Reefs) have not made much progress.
Emu Diggings: Waterloo Co., would be on of the most permanent claims in the division.
Waterloo Co., would be one of the most permanent claims in the division.
The companies on the Big Reef, near Amherst, have not made progress in erection of machinery.